The big round red thing is an overvoltage spike killer called a Varistor. A high sustained over voltage condition can kill the varistor and the ECM. Most likely however is your ECM still works. You did however kill it's voltage spike protection. Use it if you need to and if it works, but plan on replacing it before it strands you.
$40 plus shipping for a used 1227170 ECM from me. email me if you are interested - email@example.com
Define 'boosted'. Just a normal jump start or something else?
From what I see of your ECM it experienced a significant over voltage situation. Perhaps from running without a battery with a flaky alternator. The battery levels out the alternator output. Maybe this was caused by alternator spikes with the battery poorly connected.
Also if in your remote battery set up you are using the frame as a battery return wire, bad connections from the frame to the engine can cause major problems. There are wires in your engine harness that run from the frame of the car to the engine. If your negative battery cable runs to the frame instead of the engine, and the engine to frame connections are not the best, you will burn up those wires in your wiring harness.
[This message has been edited by phonedawgz (edited 07-12-2013).]